Articles by "Clay"

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Showing posts with label Clay. Show all posts

J. W. Stucki, W. L. Banwart ... 477 pages - Publisher: Springer; (October, 2011) ... Language: English - ISBN-10: 9400990960 - ISBN-13: 978-9400990968 ...

During the past few years there has been a marked increase in the use of advanced chemical methods in studies of soil and clay mineral systems, but only a relatively small number of soil and clay scientists have become intimately associ­ ated and acquainted with these new techniques. Perhaps the most important obstacles to technology transfer in this area are: 1) many soil and clay chemists have had insufficient opportunities to explore in depth the working principles of more recent spectroscopic developments, and therefore are unable to exploit the vast wealth of information that is available through the application of such ad­ vanced technology to soil chemical research; and 2) the necessary equipment gen­ erally is unavailable unless collaborative projects are undertaken with chemists and physicists who already have the instruments. The objective of the NATO Advanced Study Institute held at the University of Illinois from July 23 to August 4, 1979, was to partially alleviate these obstacles. This volume, which is an extensively edited and reviewed version of the proceedings of that Advanced Study Institute, is an essential aspect of that purpose. Herein are summarized the theory and most current applications of six different spectroscopic methods to soil and/or clay mineral systems. The instrumental methods examined are Mossbauer, neutron scattering, x-ray photoelectron (XPS, ESCA), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), electron spin resonance (ESR, EPR), and photoacoustic spectroscopy. Contributing authors were also lecturers at the Advanced Study Institute, and are each well known and respected authorities in their respective disciplines.

Raymond N. Yong ... 449 pages - Publisher: Elsevier; (January, 1975) ... Language: English - ISBN-10: 0444569359 - ISBN-13: 978-0444601360 ...

Soil Properties and Behavior defines the structure of the soil-water system. This book provides the background of the nature of mineral particles and the existing forces between the particles in the soil system. It also examines the structure and fabric of soil, as well as their relationship with water. Furthermore, the book explores water movement and soil performance, which are related to the physics of soil-water movement and volume changes. This book illustrates the common clay minerals in soils and discusses the methods for their identification. It also reviews the theory of one-dimensional consolidation and discusses the soil structure in consolidation and compression. The book also presents the concepts of yield and failure in soils, yield criteria, and failure theories. It also focuses on granular and cohesive soil strength, including friction properties, the intrinsic friction angle, the volumetric strain, and pore-water pressure. The last part of the book discusses soil freezing and permafrost.

Faïza Bergaya, G. Lagaly ... 1752 pages - Publisher: Elsevier; 2nd edition (July, 2013) ... 
Language: English - ISBN-10: 0080993648 - ISBN-13: 978-0080993645 ...

The first edition of the Handbook of Clay Science published in 2006 assembled the scattered literature on the varied and diverse aspects that make up the discipline of clay science. The topics covered range from the fundamental structures (including textures) and properties of clays and clay minerals, through their environmental, health and industrial applications, to their analysis and characterization by modern instrumental techniques. Also included are the clay-microbe interaction, layered double hydroxides, zeolites, cement hydrates, and genesis of clay minerals as well as the history and teaching of clay science. The 2e adds new information from the intervening 6 years and adds some important subjects to make this the most comprehensive and wide-ranging coverage of clay science in one source in the English language. Provides up-to-date, comprehensive information in a single source + Covers applications of clays, as well as the instrumental analytical techniques + Provides a truly multidisciplinary approach to clay science

Roland Pusch, Raymond N. Yong ...
352 pages - Publication Date: April 16, 2007
Sold by: Amazon Digital Services LLC - Language: English - ASIN: B000Q36230

Certain wastes such as nuclear wastes, are so hazardous that their disposal creates a major challenge requiring considerable technical skill and understanding. Their effective isolation in the ground depends on the properties of the surrounding clays. This authoritative book explains the detailed function of clay-based engineered barriers, gives a number of examples of the design and construction of successful sites, and sets out conceptual and theoretical models for the prediction of their performance.

It begins by providing a scientific grounding in the relevant aspects of clay science and successively moves onto the practicalities, while retaining the scientific slant. It will be useful for students, and invaluable for research institutes, specialists in environmental protection agencies and consultants in the field of disposal of hazardous waste.

Haydn H. Murray ... 188 pages - Publisher: Elsevier Science; (December, 2006) ... Language: English - ISBN-10: 0444547339 - ISBN-13: 978-0444547330 ...

This book on Applied Clay Mineralogy is comprehensive. It covers the structure, composition, and physical and chemical properties of kaolinite, halloysite, ball clays; bentonites including sodium montmorillonite, calcium montmorillonite, and hectorite; and palygorskite and sepiolite. There is also a short chapter on common clays which are used for making structural clay products and lightweight aggregate. The location and geology of the major clay deposits that are marketed worldwide and regionally include kaolins from the United States, Southwest England, Brazil, and the Czech Republic along with halloysite from New Zealand and ball clays from the US, England, Germany, and Ukraine. Bentonites from the U.S. and Europe are included along with palygorskite and sepiolite from the U.S, China, Senegal, and Spain. The mining and processing of the various clays are described. Extensive discussions of the many applications of the clays are included. The appendices cover the important laboratory tests that are used to identify and evaluate the various types of clay. Many figures are included covering electron micrographs, processing flow sheets, stratigraphy, and location maps.

Gary W. Beall, Clois E. Powell ...
194 pages - Publisher: Cambridge University Press; 1st edition (August 15, 2011)
Language: English - ISBN-10: 0521876435 - ISBN-13: 978-0521876438

Written for graduate students, researchers, and practitioners, this book provides a complete introduction to the science, engineering, and commercial applications of polymer-clay nanocomposites. Starting with a discussion of general concepts, the authors define specific terms used in the field, providing newcomers with a strong foundation to the area. The physical and mechanical properties of polymer-clay nanocomposites are then described, with chapters on thermodynamics and kinetics, engineering properties, barrier properties, and flame retardancy. Mechanisms underpinning observed effects, such as UV resistance, solvent resistance, and hardness, are also explained. In-depth discussions of clay and clay surface treatment, fabrication, and characterization of nanocomposites are provided, and particular emphasis is placed on the proper use and interpretation of analytical techniques, helping readers to avoid artifacts in their own work. With commercial applications discussed throughout, and experimental results connected with theory, this is an ideal reference for those working in polymer science.

M. J. Wilson ... 367 pages - Publisher: Springer; (March 31, 1994)
Language: English - ISBN-10: 0412533804 - ISBN-13: 978-0412533808

A knowledge of clay is important in many spheres of scientific endeav­ our, particularly in natural sciences such as geology, mineralogy and soil science, but also in more applied areas like environmental and mater­ ials science. Over the last two decades research into clay mineralogy has been strongly influenced by the development and application of a num­ ber of spectroscopic techniques which are now able to yield information about clay materials at a level of detail that previously would have seemed inconceivable. This information relates not only to the precise characterization of the individual clay components themselves, but also to the ways in which these components interact with a whole range of absorbate molecules. At present, however, the fruits of this research are to be found principally in a somewhat widely dispersed form in the scientific journals, and it was thus considered to be an appropriate time to bring together a compilation of these spectroscopic techniques in a way which would make them more accessible to the non-specialist. This is the primary aim of this book. The authors of the various chapters first describe the principles and instrumentation of the individual spectro­ scopic techniques, assuming a minimum of prior knowledge, and then go on to show how these methods have been usefully applied to clay mineralogy in its broadest context.

Alain Meunier ...
472 pages - Publisher: Springer; (May 24, 2005)
Language: English - ISBN-10: 3540216677 - ISBN-13: 978-3540216674

Here is a comprehensive and up to-do-date presentation of the origins, and properties of clay minerals at the Earth´s surface. The text reviews the relatively simple laws that govern the chemical or isotopic composition and the crystalline structure of clays, and then discusses their genesis and alteration. Concluding chapters show that clay minerals can form in variety of different environments: meteorites, lavas, subduction zones, among others.

Ahmet Gurses ...
360 pages -Publisher: Pan Stanford; (July 29, 2015)
Language: English - ISBN-10: 9814613029 - ISBN-13: 978-9814613026

This book focuses on polymer–clay nanocomposite materials. It introduces readers to polymers, clays, and organo-clay and discusses the nature of interparticle interactions and physical adsorption, which are predominant in the synthesis of organo-clay; conversion of clay to organo-clay; interactions between functional groups in the interlayer region of clay and modifier ions; synthesis of organo-clays and their uses; and the commercial utilization of organo-clays. The text then covers the preparation of polymer–clay nanocomposites and their characterization, properties, performance, and applications.

The primary goal of this book is to aid readers who wish to engage in the research and development of polymer–clay nanocomposites and to offer them an overview of the commonly used polymer–clay nanocomposites and their origins, manufacture, properties, and potential applications. This book will serve as a general introduction to researchers just entering the field and as a useful reference for scholars from other subfields.

B. Velde ... 442 pages - Publisher: Elsevier Science; (April 1, 2000)
Language: English - ISBN-10: 0444553606 - ISBN-13: 978-0444553607

This book follows another by the same author, published in 1977, which the author considered as "a first attempt to put some order in the house of clay petrology". That book was described as "an excellent first attack on clay mineral petrology . . . informative, and stimulating because of the method of presentation and the open-door treatment of the subject. Not only clay-mineral scientists but petrologists in general must read this first book on clay mineral petrology". (Earth Science Reviews). This book describes clay mineral occurrence in terms of the physical and chemical forces which influence it. It includes a geological description of mineral occurrence, a definition of the major features of clay mineral chemical composition, and an indication of the physical-chemical boundaries of these occurrences. It also presents general patterns for the geological environments of weathering, sedimentation, burial diagenesis, deep sea basalt alteration, hydrothermal alteration of acidic rocks and chemical precipitation in acidic and basic environments. The major clay groups are related to one another as they occur in geological systems through the use of graphical analysis. The author has thoroughly reviewed the relevant literature for the last 25 years. The data and analyses obtained and presented in this book will not only make interesting reading, but will also prove extremely useful to those involved with studies in deep sea research, mining geology, petroleum geology, agronomy and civil engineering.

Suprakas Sinha Ray ... 416 pages - Publisher: Elsevier; 1st edition (July, 2013) ...
Language: English - ISBN-10: 044459437X - ISBN-13: 978-0444594372 ...

Clay-Containing Polymer Nanocomposites covers everything from fundamental understanding to real applications of clay-containing polymer nanocomposites, including environmental considerations. The book's coverage of fundamentals and generalities, in addition to in-depth coverage of polymer layered silicate nanocomposites, make it a valuable companion for beginners in the field as well as more seasoned researchers. This book provides a rare coherent approach to this class of materials. This title is ideal for polymer and material scientists, researchers, and engineers, including under- and post-graduate students who are interested in this exciting field of research. This book will also help industrial researchers and R&D managers who want to bring advanced polymeric material based products into the market. Details crystallization behavior and kinetics to aid in applications such as injection molding + Covers melt-state rheological properties, aiding understanding of the processability of materials + Presents applications and market potential, supporting R&D managers who want to bring advanced polymeric material-based products into the market.

J. E. Gillott ...
484 pages - Publisher: Elsevier Science Ltd; 2nd edition (May 1987)
Language: English - ISBN-10: 0444427589 - ISBN-13: 978-0444427588

Engineering geology is an interdisciplinary subject concerned with the application of geological science to engineering practice, and it is therefore important for the engineering geologist to recognize the boundary between engineering application and purely scientific enquiry. Much research in applied clay science results from imperfectly understood engineering behaviour. Engineering geology is most closely allied to the geotechnical and materials areas of civil engineering. The scope of the present book is limited to the influence of clay but because clay is almost ubiquitous in earth materials the subject still remains broad. In soil and rock, clay is the smallest size fraction, but it is that very fact which often determines its major influences on engineering behaviour. In this book the author reviews the importance of clay in engineering geology and summarizes present knowledge in this field. The plan of the book has remained unchanged since the first edition was published in 1968 but the text, diagrams and reference lists have all been extensively updated. The first 5 chapters review the classification, origin, composition, fabric and physical chemistry of clays.

G. M. Reeves, I. Sims, J. C. Cripps ... 552 pages - Publisher: Geological Society of London; (February, 2006) ... Language: English - ISBN-10: 186239184X - ISBN-13: 978-1862391840

Concluding the trilogy on geological materials in construction by specially convened Geological Society working parties, this authoritative volume reviews many uses of clays, ranginf from simple fills to manufactured products. Comprehensive and international coverage is achieved by an expert team, including geologists, engineers and architects, who met over six years to produce the book. Packed with information prepared for a wide readership, this unique handbook is also copiously illustrated. The volume is dedicated to the memory of Professor Sir Alec Skempton. Various definitions of ‘clay’ are explored. Clay mineralogy is described, plust the geological formation of clay deposits and their fundamental materials properties. World and British clay deposits are reviewed. New compositional data are provided for clay informations throughout the British stratigraphic column. Investigate techniques and interpretation are considered, ranging from site exploration to laboratory asessment of composition and engineering performance. Major civil engineering applications are addressed, including earthworks, earthmoving and specialized roles utilizing clays. Traditional earthen building is included and shown to dominate construction in places. Clay-based construction materials are detailed, including bricks, ceramics and cements. The volume also includes a comprehensive glossary.

Bruce B. Velde, Alain Meunier ... 406 pages - Publisher: Springer; (September, 2008) ...
Language: English - ISBN-10: 3540756337 - ISBN-13: 978-3540756330 ...

Of huge relevance in a number of fields, this is a survey of the different processes of soil clay mineral formation and the consequences of these processes concerning the soil ecosystem, especially plant and mineral. Two independent systems form soil materials. The first is the interaction of rocks and water, unstable minerals adjusting to surface conditions. The second is the interaction of the biosphere with clays in the upper parts of alteration profiles.

Roland Pusch ... 
360 pages - Publisher: CRC Press; (June 19, 2015)
Language: English - ISBN-10: 1482243431 - ISBN-13: 978-1482243437

Studies the Environmental, Cosmetic, and Pharmaceutical Applications of Bentonite Clay: Bentonite clay, of which members of the smectite family of clay minerals are particularly important, has proven to be effective in sealing off wastes from groundwater. Bentonite Clay: Environmental Properties and Applications explores the mineralogy of clays in general and of smectites in particular that represent challenging conditions for geotechnical professionals responsible for earth dam construction, the foundations of roads and buildings, and the long-term isolation of chemical and radioactive wastes. The author, a world-renowned expert on the subject, places special emphasis on the environmental behavior of bentonite clay when focused on the isolation of hazardous wastes and also considers its use in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals.

Based on classical literature and current research and development, this text provides an in-depth introduction to bentonite soil, explains the origin of smectite-rich clays, and pinpoints where they can be found. The book describes the interaction of expandable clay minerals, gas, and fluids, followed by a description of the physical and chemical properties of smectite clay saturated with water or chemical solutions. It also provides relevant findings and conclusions concerning the function of bentonite-based sealing repositories for dangerous waste.

This text: Describes the constitution of smectite minerals as a basis for understanding the behavior of smectite clays and their performance in the isolation of hazardous waste  + Factors in the longevity of smectite clays in bentonite beds and in the form of canister-embedding buffers in repositories for deep geological disposal of highly radioactive waste (HLW)  + Covers the design principles for clay seals and considers their function in the isolation of waste and redirecting groundwater flow.
    Bentonite Clay: Environmental Properties and Applications documents the origin, properties, and characteristics of bentonite and its uses. A resource for researchers, practitioners, regulators, and policy makers, the text examines the use of clay in hazardous waste and nuclear waste management and provides readers with detailed descriptions of related technical solutions.

    Swapna Mukherjee ...
    335 pages - Publisher: Springer; (July 23, 2013)
    Language: English - ISBN-10: 9400766823 - ISBN-13: 978-9400766822

    This book is an attempt to provide a comprehensive and coherent description of three widely separated aspects of clays: the science of clays; the industrial uses of clays; and the role of clays in the environment. Most of the existing literature lacks such an integrated study and this work endeavours to fill that gap.

    An exhaustive account of the science of clays is presented in Part I of the book, which includes the classification, origin and evolution, composition and internal structure, chemical and physical properties of clays; soil mechanics; and  analytical techniques for determining clay constituents. Part II provides a comprehensive description of the applications of clays and their derivatives in various industries, while Part III describes the role of clays in the environment; the pollution caused by clay minerals; and the application of clays in order to prevent environmental hazards.

    A principal feature of the book is its explanation of how the structure and composition of particular clay types facilitate their specific industrial or environmental applications, thus describing the interrelationship between three widely varying aspects of clay. A number of thought-provoking questions are raised at the end of the work in order to leave readers with a better insight in this regard.

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